References: A Sample

Alternative facts and fake news: the referencing antidote.

(The narrative which follows appears in the Preface, not this section, which in the book simply lists the references cited throughout its pages).

In ‘opinion/comment’ columns and many blogs there lurks the danger that the author is unwittingly misleading the reader about the intentions and meanings within the sources they have drawn upon or, much worse, are guilty of plagiarism.

‘Fake news’ is nothing new but in the world of social media it is unprecedentedly pervasive. Also, fakeness and falsification are not uncommon in what appear on the surface to be eminently reputable business books. Where there is any doubt in the reader’s mind regarding the veracity of content there is no substitute for seeking out original sources, articles or books and examining these for themselves. As Ronald Reagan repeatedly observed when discussing US relations with the Soviet Union: “Trust, but verify”.

To facilitate this for the reader, the final section of this book provides references to every source cited throughout its pages. A more positive reason for referencing is to allow the reader to take any specific topic of interest and follow it through to its broader domain, essential for a book which covers a range of disciplines and which has the inquisitive reader as its target audience.

As a final observation regarding the smart use of references by readers, well-written articles and books have very thoughtfully constructed titles and will convey meaning and insight as to the main thrust of their content. For the reader with the time to do so, it is worth looking at these reference titles as they arise to garner further insight on the scope of the work being cited.

A sample…

Bengstsson, M., & Raza-Ullah, T. (2016). A systematic review of research on cooperation: Toward a multilevel understanding. Industrial Marketing Management, 57, 23-39.
Bernanke, B. (2017). The Courage to Act: A Memoir of a Crisis and its Aftermath. London: W.W. Norton & Company.
Bloodworth, J. (2018). Hired: Six Months Undercover in Low-Wage Britain. London: Atlantic Books.
Borden, N. H. (1964). The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Journal of Advertising Research, 4(June), 2-7.
Bower, T. (2014). Branson: Behind the Mask. London: Faber & Faber.
Branson, R. (2017). Finding my Virginity: The New Autobiography. London: Virgin Books.
Bridgewater, S., & Egan, C. E. (2002). International Marketing Relationships. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Buchanan, D., & Huczynski, A. (2019). Organizational Behaviour (10 ed.). Harlow: Pearson.
Christensen, C. M. (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Clark, D. (2016). Alibaba: The House that Jack Ma Built. New York: Harper Collins.
Clarkson, J. (2018, March 29th). The Clarkson Review: 2018 Kia Stinger GT S – Supersonic, but it won’t fly in blighty. The Sunday Times.
Coch, L., & French, J. R. P. (1948). Overcoming resistance to change. Human Relations, 1, 512-532.
Collinson, S., Narula, R., & Rugman, A. M. (2020). International Business (8 ed.). Harlow: Pearson.
Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A Behavioural Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall.
Dibb, S., Simkin, L., Pride, W., M, & Ferrell, O. C. (2016). Marketing: Concepts and Strategies (7 ed.). Andover: Cengage Learning.
Donnan, S. (2018, 9 March). US steel tariffs likely to be opening shot in bigger trade war with China. Financial Times, p. 6.
Drucker, P. F. (1974). Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. London: Heinemann Professional Publishing.
Economist. (2017, July 8th). The German Economy: Vorsprung durch Angst. The Economist, 16-18.
Economist. (2018, March 31st). Briefing: AI in Business – GrAIt expectations. The Economist, 1-12.
Economist. (2018, April 28th). Briefing: Global Logistics – Thinking outside the box. The Economist, 18-20.
Economist. (2018, February 24th). Facebook unfriended: Russian meddling is only one challenge facing the social-networking giant. The Economist, 55-56.
Economist. (2018, March 10th). The threat to world trade: The rules-based system is in grave danger. The Economist, 68-69.
Economist. (2019, March 9th). Going against the grain: Disruptive technologies may change the whisk(e)y industry. The Economist, 73-74.
Economist. (2019, May 11th). Intel: Fear of missing out: The chipmaker’s new boss wants to mix diversification with ruthlessness. The Economist, 60.
Economist. (2019, May 11th). Speaker see. Speaker do: Household electronics are undergoing a sensory makeover. The Economist, 70-71.
Economist. (2019, March 30th). Streamlined: A wave of consolidation pits Disney, AT&T and Comcast against Netflix, Amazon and Apple. Billions are being torched. Someone will get hurt. The Economist, 66-67.
Economist. (2019, May 4th). Tech’s raid on the banks: Digital disruption is coming to banking at last. The Economist, 13.
Economist. (2019, April 20th). The trouble with tech unicorns: Millions of users, cool brands and charismatic bosses. Tech’s latest stars have everything – except a path to high profits. The Economist, 13.
Edwards, D. (2011). I’m Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 39. London: Allan Lane.
Egan, C. E. (1998). Chasing the Holy Grail: A Critical Appraisal of ‘The Brand’ and the Brand Valuation Debate. Journal of Brand Management, 5(4), 227-244.
Egan, C. E., & McKiernan, P. (1993). Inside Fortress Europe: Strategies for the Single Market. London: Addison-Wesley/Economist Intelligence Unit.
Egan, C. E. (1995). Creating Organizational Advantage. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Egan, C. E. (2018). Outside Fortress Europe: Strategies for the Global Market. Rugby: Strategic Management Think Tank.
Gabrielsson, M., & Kirpalani, M. V. H. (2004). Born global: how to reach new business space rapidly. International Business Review, 13, 555-571.
Garr, D. (2000). IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner & the Business Turnaround of the Decade. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Gaughan, P. A. (2018). Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructuring (7 ed.). London: John Wiley & Sons.
Gerstner, L. (2003). Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance: Inside IBM’s Historic Turnaround. London: HarperCollins.
Gladwell, M. (2002). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (New edition ed.). London: Abacus.
Gomes, E., Barnes, B. R., & Mahmood, T. (2016). A 22-year review of strategic alliance research in the leading management journals. International Business Review, 25, 15-27.
Graeber, D. (2018). Bullshit Jobs: A Theory. London: Allen Lane.
Hooley, G., Nicoulaud, B., Rudd, J., & Lee, N. (2020). Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning (7 ed.). Harlow: Pearson.
Isaacson, W. (2011). Steve Jobs: The Exclusive Biography. London: Abacus.
Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2000). The Strategy-Focussed Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.
Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2015). Blue Ocean Strategy Extended Edition: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
Levitt, T. (1960). Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review(July-August), 45-56.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
McDonald, M. (2017). On Marketing Planning: Understanding Marketing Plans and Strategy (2 ed.). London: Kogan Page.
Moore, G. A. (2014). Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products to Mainstream Customers (3 ed.). London: HarperBusiness.
Morita, A. (1988). Made in Japan: Akio Morita and Sony. London: Fontana Press.
Nilsson, P. (2019, 24 April). ITV pins hope on streaming as revenues drop. Financial Times, p. 18.
Ogilvy, D. (2011). Confessions of an Advertising Man. London: Southbank Publishing.
O’Neill, S. (2018, February 9th). Oxfam in Haiti: ‘It was like a Caligula orgy with prostitutes in Oxfam T-shirts’. The Times, p. 1.
Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Bernada, G., Smith, A., & Papadakos, T. (2014). Value Proposition Design: How to Create Products and Services Customers Want. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Peter, L. J., & Hull, R. (2011). The Peter Principle: Why things always go wrong – Reprint edition. London: HarperBusiness.
Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies. New York: Harper & Row.
Pfeffer, J. (2015). Leadership BS: Fixing Workplaces and Careers One Truth at a Time. London: Harper Collins.
Pike, R., Neale, B., Linsley, P., & Akbar, S. (2018). Corporate Finance and Investment: Decisions and Strategies (9 ed.). Harlow: Pearson.
Pinder, J., & Usherwood, S. (2018). The European Union: A Very Short Introduction (4 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M. E. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. New York: Free Press.
Rogers, E. (2003). The Diffusion of Innovations (5 ed.). New York: Free Press.
Rumelt, R. (2017). Good Strategy/Bad Strategy: The difference and why it matters. London: Profile Books.
Schoorl, E. (2015). Jean-Baptiste Say: Revolutionary, Entrepreneur, Economist (Routledge Studies in the History of Economics). London: Routledge.
Sculley, J. (1989). Odyssey: From Pepsi to Apple, the Story of a Marketing Genius. New York: Fontana Press.
Steers, R. M., & Osland, J. S. (2019). Management Across Cultures: Challenges, Strategies, and Skills (4 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stone, B. (2014). The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon. London: Bantam Press.
Syed, M. (2016). Black Box Thinking: Marginal Gains and the Secrets of High Performance. London: John Murray.
Taleb, N. N. (2007). The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable. London: Penguin.
Tapscott, D. (2014). The Digital Economy: Rethinking Promise and Peril in the Age of Networked Intelligence (2 ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Tjemkes, B., Vos, P., & Burgers, K. (2017). Strategic Alliance Management (2 ed.). London: Routledge.
Usborne, D. (2012, January 20th). The moment it all went wrong for Kodak. The Independent, p. 28.
Vandermerwe, S. (2014). Breaking Through: Implementing Disruptive Customer Centricity (2 ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Whittington, R., Regner, P., Angwin, D., Johnson, G., & Scholes, K. (2019). Exploring Strategy: Text and Cases (12 ed.). Harlow: Pearson.
Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. (2016). Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm (3 Ed.). London: McGraw-Hill Education.


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